What Is Cold Welding In Physics? (Working, Pros, And Cons)

Here is detailed information about What Is Cold Welding In Physics? No heat is used to unite the metal parts during cold welding. The metal never melts; it always exists in a solid state. In this way, cold welding is regarded as a solid-state welding procedure.

Instead, pressure is used to apply the energy required to bind the metal. Cold welding, or friction or arc welding, differs from fusion welding because it doesn’t include a liquid or molten metal phase.

The work piece surfaces are pressed as closely as possible together by the applied pressure. The nanoscale separation is no longer significant once the components are compressed and metal atoms travel swiftly between them. The two pieces of metal fuse into a homogeneous mass, creating a flawless bond with almost no consequences.

What Is Cold Welding In Physics? The main Reason

A solid-state welding technique called cold welding joins two or more metals with little to no heat. Instead, pressure is an energy source to bind the components together. No metal is liquefied or even noticeably heated during the cold welding procedure.

Cold Welding In Physics


  • An ideal method for combining aluminium and copper, two metals that are difficult to weld using conventional methods.
  • Removes most heat-affected zone (HAZ) issues because a welding arc doesn’t produce concentrated heat or a HAZ.
  • It offers a nearly flawless welding joint free of microfractures, brittle intermetallic compounds, and other joint flaws.
  • Capable of joining a wide variety of dissimilar metals that are typically challenging to weld together.
  • Lowers the level of expertise needed to fuse unusual metals


  • The metal may need to be cleaned and prepared in several phases, and the surface must be spotless.
  • Surface imperfections, pollution, and molecular structures at the nanoscale can impair the outcomes.
  • Tough to accomplish in an industrial context due to airborne dust and other debris
  • Cold welding only works with non-ferrous ductile metals like copper, aluminium, lead, gold, etc.; carbon steel and hardened metals cannot be cold welded.
  • Flat surfaces yield the greatest results when cold welding, whereas irregular shapes present a challenge.

How Does It Work?

The oxide coatings on the surfaces of the materials must be removed before cold welding can link two or more metals together. Most metals have an oxide layer on their texture that acts as a barrier to prevent the metal atoms from joining (in normal circumstances).

After removing this oxide layer, the metals can be pushed together under intense pressure to form metallurgical bonding. Wire brushing, degreasing, and other chemical or mechanical methods can remove the oxide coating.

How Does It Work

Metals can be pressed together after cleaning, but the materials must be ductile and shouldn’t have experienced significant hardening. Therefore, softer metals are frequently chosen for cold welding.

Early satellites and other spacecraft had mechanical issues due to the cold welding process’ inability to eliminate the relative motion between surfaces that needed to be attached.

This implies that adhesion, fretting, galling, and sticking can overlap, allowing, for instance, simultaneous cold welding and fretting. Additionally, astronauts can operate swiftly and efficiently outside a spacecraft to do any necessary repairs thanks to the ability to fuse metals without a liquid or molten phase.

Nanoscale cold welding has also been demonstrated, with single-crystalline ultrathin gold nanowires (with diameters < 10 nm) joining mechanically in seconds. With the same crystal alignment, electrical conductivity, and strength as the rest of the nanowire, the findings have been proved to be almost perfect.

The nanoscale sample size, mechanically assisted surface diffusion, and orientated attachment processes are responsible for high-quality welding. It has been proven that gold and silver can be joined via nanoscale cold welding.

In his “Feynman Lectures,” Richard Feynman explains the mechanism of cold welding, stating that the atoms in touch with each other are all of the same kind. Therefore they cannot “know” that they are in different pieces of copper. When other atoms are present in oxides, greases, and more complex thin surface layers of impurities in between, the atoms “know” that they are not on the same section.


Although cold welding was first recognized in the 1940s, cold welding techniques have a much longer history. The first scientific experiment into cold welding was not carried out until 1724 when Reverend John Theophilus Desaguliers held two lead balls together and twisted them.

At that point, he noticed that they had stuck together. Archaeologists have discovered Bronze Age tools that were joined using this technique. According to additional testing, the bond created has the same strength as the parent metal.

Prerequisites For Cold Welding

The geometry of the joint and meticulous cleanliness of the metal surface are essential requirements for cold welding. It is best to smooth any imperfections in the contour since flat joint surfaces perform better.

Degreasing, wire brushing, mechanical, chemical, and other techniques can eliminate the oxide layer and other impurities. Before wire brushing, grease and oil on the metal’s surface must be removed.

This is crucial because the brush can push these contaminants deeper into the metal. The pointed bristles of the wire brush make soft metals like aluminium, copper, gold, and silver especially prone to having surface oils embedded beneath the surface.

Cleaning the oils first, then removing the oxide layer itself, is the next step. Different bristle kinds and brush designs may be advised depending on the metal. Checking the metal’s specification sheet is always a smart idea.

Is Cold Welding Strong?

If you correctly prepare correctly, the cold-welded junction will be as durable as the parent metal. The characteristics of the metal determine the joint strength. The joint strength of cold welding cannot be greater than the strength of the original metal, unlike other welding techniques.

Is Cold Welding Strong

The joint strength will be impaired if the joining surfaces are adequately cleaned or have irregular forms. However, achieving maximum bond in common cold welding tasks like connecting wire is relatively easy.

Possible Weld Joints

Butt and lap joints are ideal since cold-pressure welding performs well with a large contact surface. Butt welds are typically used to join wire and pipes. This is because joining the wires is as easy as pressing them together, cleaning the contact surface, and trimming the ends.

Because soft metals can bend sideways instead of joining, the space between the clamping points and the contact surface shouldn’t be too great while making a butt weld.

The chilly lap joint can be challenging. The pressure to press two sheets of metal together will cause the thickness to decrease. Therefore, while planning your project, you should allow for at least a 50% reduction in thickness.

The final welded component will only satisfy the project’s criteria if it does. Although the weld may be flawless, the thinned portion might not be acceptable. Make a few test welds to estimate the thickness, considering the metal’s elasticity and softness.

What Metals Can Be Cold Welded?

Copper, aluminium, lead, zinc, 70/30 brass alloy, nickel, silver, silver alloys, platinum, and gold are among the metals that can be cold welded. It can also weld aluminium alloys from the 2xxx and 7xxx series. Due to their disposition to break under heat, they cannot be fusion welded and are difficult to join using techniques other than cold welding.

Any metal containing carbon, including carbon steel, cannot be cold welded. The fact that carbon steel is by far the most welded metal severely restricts the usage of cold welding.

Metals having a face-centered cubic arrangement of atoms that don’t work harden quickly are the greatest candidates for cold welding. Before the pressure from cold welding can form a bond, swiftly working metals frequently break. Only the very ductile metals mentioned above can be cold welded because of this.

Different Types Of Cold Welding

There is just one sort of cold welding. Instead, there are three approaches with similar names. Let’s quickly review these procedures.

Cold Metal Transfer

A welding arc is used in the cold metal transfer (CMT) fusion welding process to form a connection. It is sometimes misidentified as “cold welding,” which confuses. CMT is a type of MIG welding that uses around 90% less heat than standard MIG welding.

Since this arc welding technique is so “cold,” it addresses several issues that arise during the real cold welding process. You should keep these two the same, though.

The CMT can be utilized with metals when cold-pressure welding is impossible since it uses an electrical arc and filler metal wire. However, the CMT relies on exact filler wire retraction once the arc starts to manage the heat input. If cold pressure welding is an option, it can only be accomplished by a robot and is not cost-effective.

TIG Cold Welding

As CMT stated before, TIG cold welding has nothing to do with the process described on this page. Some TIG welding equipment has a “cold” setting that significantly reduces the heat input. It achieves this by briefly generating an electric arc to a tiny area.

The rapid dissipation of any heat created, particularly when utilizing a highly electrically conductive material like aluminium, leads to a low temperature. When welding wires and extremely thin metal sheets, this is helpful.

However, utilizing the pulse settings, you could accomplish something similar with any skilled TIG welder. Setting a low pulse current and a high time dilation between the pulses will produce low-heat TIG welds. However, low heat is only sometimes sufficient. Thus, anytime cold-pressure welding is an option, it will result in a stronger union.

JB Weld

The epoxy bonding technique known as JB Weld is utilized with metal, concrete, brick, fiberglass, etc. Despite being called an “Original Cold-Weld Formula,” it doesn’t weld the metals together. Unlike the cold welding process, the two metals do not fuse to produce a homogenous mass since there is no interatomic attraction.

Metal can be adhered to with JB Weld but won’t be welded together. The item is an epoxy with two parts: a base and an activator. You should clamp the metal parts down after mixing and applying this substance to them to start the curing process.

It provides a weak bond compared to a normal E6010 stick electrode, which has a tensile bonding strength of 60,000 PSI. It can only replace a real weld if you’re making small repairs around the house. However, some individuals do mix it up with the cold welding procedure.


Here we conclude all about What Is Cold Welding In Physics? Cold welding is a unique bonding method that can produce incredibly strong links without heat. Although it has been used since the Bronze Age, scientific understanding developed in the 16th century.

Cold welding has its drawbacks, but when done properly, it can join disparate materials and even some aluminium grades that are considered unweldable. Cold welding, typically used to join wires, is also used in the aerospace and automobile industries.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the process of cold welding?

The cold welding process operates by pressing two metal surfaces together. As much pressure as possible is used to bring the surfaces together. The nanoscale distance between surfaces becomes meaningless as the space between them becomes incredibly small, causing atoms to leap from one surface to another.

What is hot or cold welding?

To melt and fuse metal, hot welding techniques use an electrical arc, internal resistance, or an active flame. While hot welding has a much wider range of applications, cold welding is best suited for non-ferrous metal and particular applications.

What is the hot welding process?

Via a heated tooling plate, two plastic components are joined via hot-plate welding. Each component touches the hot plate through a weld rib or bead. The weld rib melts as a result of heat conduction into it.

What are the advantages of cold working in welding?

Cold welding has the significant benefit of creating strong bindings between two pieces of metal without heating or expensive machinery. This makes it perfect for materials like aluminium alloys, which are frequently challenging to weld using traditional techniques.

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